When comparing leadership with management, it is essential to understand that they are not mutually exclusive. In his Leadership: Theory and Practice Peter Northouse pointed out that they are similar in many ways. Both leadership and management involve influence, working with people, concern about effective goal accomplishment, and other shared characteristics, etc. Additionally, as Richard Daft wrote, “leadership cannot replace management,” but rather is something that is to be practiced “in addition to management” (see The Leadership Experience, p. 15).
Per Daft, the main difference between leadership and management lies in the fact that in the classical managerial context “managers are thinkers and workers are doers,” while in a leadership context both leaders and workers/followers think, do, lead, “expand their minds and abilities to assume responsibility” for their decisions and actions.
Another researcher that wrote about management as opposed to leadership was Warren Bennis. In the On Becoming a Leader volume Bennis listed the following differences:
1. The manager administers; the leader innovates.
2. The manager is a copy; the leader is an original.
3. The manager maintains; the leader develops.
4. The manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people.
5. The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust.
6. The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective.
7. The manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why.
8. The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader’s eye is on the horizon.
9. The manager imitates; the leader originates.
10. The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it.
11. The manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person.
12. The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing.
Above-quoted Richard Daft looked at the differences between management and leadership from 5 different angles: (i) that of direction, (ii) alignment, (iii) relationships, (iv) personal qualities, and (v) outcomes. From characteristics that have not been mentioned by Bennis, Daft listed:
13. The manager plans and budgets; the leader creates vision and strategy [direction]
14. The manager is generally directing and controlling; the leader allows room for others to grow, and change him/her in the process [alignment]
15. The manager creates boundaries; the leader reduces them [alignment]
16. The manager’s relationship with people is based on position power; the leader’s relationship and influence is based on personal power [relationships]
17. The manager acts as boss; the leader acts as coach, facilitator, and servant [relationships]
18. The manager exhibits and focuses on (a) emotional distance, (b) expert mind, (c) talking, (d) conformity, and (e) insight into organization; the leader: (a) emotional connectedness, (b) open mind, (c) listening, (d) nonconformity, and (e) insight into self [personal qualities]
19. The manager maintains stability; the leader creates change [outcome]
20. The manager creates a culture of efficiency; the leader creates a culture of integrity [outcome]
The area of affiliate program management provides one of the most vivid illustrations to the differences between management and leadership. You cannot manage affiliates. Leadership is the only way; sensitive, respectful, open-minded leadership, making personal connections and allowing affiliate experts to steer their way to success (as opposed to an intruding, controlling and directing management) will help you succeed in building a successful affiliate program.